How to perform a Physical Assessment

physical assesment

Fitness for health, for quite some time has been linked to the development of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular endurance, strength, body composition and elasticity. However, when conducting studies to evaluate the results obtained by measuring performance based on a series of tests.

Fitness and health

Blair and Connell (1996), argue that moderate-intensity physical activities help to improve the level of health, reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality compared with low levels of exercise.

In addition, it also warns of education and postural hygiene as a key to proper development of physical condition item. This means that when making an assessment, altogether these six aspects should be considered:

cardiorespiratory endurance
muscular Endurance
body Composition
Elasticity of muscles and
Education and postural hygiene.
Tests for evaluation of fitness


This test should be performed 30 deep squats, between 30 and 40 seconds with arms on hips; taking the pulse before, after finishing the exercise and after 60 seconds of recovery. In conclusion, the following formula is applied rating scale.

(P1 + P2 + P3) – 200/10


P1: Beats at rest
P2: Beats the end
P3: Keystrokes after 60 seconds recovery

0-5: Excellent
5-10: Very good
10-15: Regular
Over 15: Poor

For this, it is an ideal Jump Drop test, designed by Bosco. Practically, is be dropped from a predetermined height and then, move as possible. As a suggestion, the drop must not exceed 50 cm, because of the possibility of inhibiting the reflected component of force.

This test is used to assess key components of muscle action such as concentric explosive action, the elastic capacity and reflex action, which may indicate the ability of the muscle coordination of a person.


A good body composition is essential to achieve a neutral energy balance. An expense that exceeds the intake suggests a huge loss in fat, but lean tissue. Otherwise, a greater intake expenditure, involves the appearance of deposits of fatty tissue.

This test is necessary to assess factors such as ease of application:

The body mass index (BMI)
Amount of body fat (sum of skinfolds)
A proper assessment scale for BMI, are:

Risk of mortality and morbidity: +30
Obesity: + 27
Normal: 22-27
Underweight: -21
Under alarming weight: – 15
For BMI, the following formula applies:

BMI = weight (kg) / height (M)

BMI underestimates the results in sedentary people, while overestimated by trained people, children or adolescents.

Finally, body composition can be obtained easily extracted by the Spanish Methodology Group Cineantropometría, using as a basis the techniques used by De Rose and Guimaraes. Measuring (in mm), is achieved with the aid of a caliper or skinfold compass with a capacity of 0-48 mm with an accuracy of 0.2 mm. As a rule, the folds of the right side of the body are taken by repeating the measurements in three non-consecutive occasions, scoring the measure, after elimination of erroneous records.


For this test, an evaluation of the musculature depends on postural control, ie, the erector muscles of the back and hamstring is performed.

This test has been dubbed “Sit and Reach” and its purpose is to obtain an assessment of the extensibility of back and hamstring muscles by bending the trunk forward.

A decrease in elasticity can produce a pelvic tilt and dorsalization spine, reaching cause other diseases such as kyphosis, the appearance of a disc herniation, lumbar spine investment, worsening Scheuermann’s disease, among others. With strength training, prolonged standing and regular or heavy muscular work, the manifestation of hamstring shortness is encouraged.

To perform this test is necessary to use a drawer with the following measures:

Length: 35 cm
Width: 45 cm
Height: 32 cm
At the top of the box should be placed the tape, taking about 55 cm long, 45 wide and 15 cm in length excel.

The test consists of placing the subject, barefoot, sitting in front of the drawer with legs extended, so that the feet rest on it. Subsequently, the subject shall bend the trunk forward, trying to keep the legs straight and arms forward, palms facing down. After reaching the maximum position, you will lie still for two seconds to obtain a correct record of the result. According to the number obtained, the evaluation is as follows:

Normal: Greater than -6 cm
Moderate shortness Among -6 – 15 cm
Excessive shyness: Under -15cm
Evaluation of static postural

The postural hygiene not only refers to the spine, since the lower limbs (knees and toes) may also be causing serious repercussions on static postural and spine.

A good evaluation requires multiple tests and objective and subjective test plumb, slate grid and mirrors indicators. All these are known as simple and inexpensive methods of measurement are not as sophisticated as those used in rehabilitation and orthopedics.